My webzone

A place for John Bintz to ramble.

Experiment: Cucumber step definitions in separate files

I’ve been getting back into using Cucumber for integration/acceptance testing, but I didn’t want to repeat one of the mistakes I made in the past: bloated step definition files. There were often step definitions I wanted to use globally for things like making files and such, and I didn’t want to have massive_file_steps.rb with 100 step definitions anymore.

So instead of having a setup like this:


With foo_steps.rb containing code like this:

Given /^I have a cat$/ do
  @cat =

When /^I pet the cat$/ do
  @result =

Then /^the cat should not have hissed$/ do
  @cat.should_not have_hissed

I am now trying this:


It seems to be working so far, but we’ll see how it scales.

Update 2012-04-18: It scales quite well, thank you very much. I have a Cucumber formatter that does exactly this now. Should make most of the Cucumber feature bootstrapping process pretty seamless.

SketchBook Comics - “Bad At Comebacks”

Here’s a comic I did in SketchBook for Android, which seriously needs more layers and the ability to change the canvas size:

Thanks to a certain boss of mine for providing the capacitive touch stylus.

Christmas Party Drawings

Every year at work I draw on the whiteboard in whatever room we have our Christmas party in. Here’s this year’s result, including hastily fingerpainted thumbnail done in Sketchbook:

And here’s one of a coworker wearing reindeer antlers, fingerpainted in Sketchbook:

Net::IMAP SSL Verify Mode

Get this error doing IMAP stuff?

SSL_connect returned=1 errno=0 state=SSLv3 read server certificate B: certificate verify failed (OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError)

Try this:, :ssl => { :verify_mode => OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE })

Jasmine Headless WebKit Presentation

If you’re looking for the current iteration of my Jasmine Headless WebKit presentation, which covers more nuts and bolts of JHW rather than Jasmine itself, it’s here:

Even if JS testing isn’t your thing, I do have a few cool things going on in here:

  • I’m using a custom Guard that uses Sprockets to regenerate the presentation’s CSS and JS
  • I have Solarized Light colors on whatever I can style
  • I plugged Rack::LiveReload in front of ShowOff so the browser reloads as I work on the slides

My Hypercool Automagic Rails 3.1/Guard Setup

Here’s a guide on how I set up all my Rails stuff. Having now written one, I can join the elite group of people who write guides on how they set up all their Rails stuff.

What this guide covers

  • Rails 3.1 gem setup for maximum automagic fun and less headdesking.
  • Guard setup for guarding your Rails server, RSpec tests, JavaScript testing, and LiveReloading.
  • Making jasmine-headless-webkit, your app, and Sprockets play nice.
  • Precompiling your assets locally and shoving them up to your deploy location using Capistrano.

Why this approach?

‘cause it works pretty well for me, and it’s my guide, so there.

jasmine-headless-webkit version requirements

The stuff in this guide requires at least version 0.8.3. Make sure you’re using the most recent version if you wants the Sprockets goodness.

Rails 3.1 Gem Setup

There are only two tricks: having compass load before sass-rails to ensure all the cool Compass bits actually work, and having all of your asset pipeline stuff (all of it) in a group called :assets, that also happens to be part of your :development group. Everything else is pretty straightforward. If you plan on using asset pipeline gems in your jasmine-headless-webkit setup, you can put them anywhere, as no specific groups are loaded or required when using JHW like they are with Rails:

group :assets, :development do
  gem 'compass', '~> 0.12.alpha'
  gem 'sass-rails'

  gem 'jquery-rails'
  gem 'backbone-rails'
  # ... blah blah blah ...

group :development do
  # for js testing...
  gem 'jasmine-headless-webkit', '~> 0.8.0'
  gem 'jasmine-spec-extras'

  # for laziness...
  gem 'guard'
  gem 'guard-rails'
  gem 'guard-rspec'
  gem 'guard-jasmine-headless-webkit'
  gem 'guard-livereload'

  # for awesome rack middleware
  gem 'rack-livereload'

Why does order matter? It’s a Gemfile, right?

‘cause Rails (roughly) does:

Bundler.require(:default, ENV['RAILS_ENV'], ENV['RAILS_GROUPS'])

… which requires the files in your Gemfile in the order in which they are defined. If Compass defines the necessary asset pipeline stuff first, Sass-Rails won’t stomp on it and everything works all happy-like.

Guard setup

If you don’t know Guard, the you’re out of the loop. All the lazy programmers are using it. Any by “lazy” I mean super-cool.

Create a Guardfile for your project by doing this in your shell:

for guard in rails rspec jasmine-headless-webkit livereload ; do
  bundle exec guard init $guard

Then, split those Guards up into groups. I typically have three: one for the Rails server and LiveReload, one for RSpec, and one for JHW:

group :test do
  guard 'rspec', :version => 2, :all_on_start => false do
    watch(%r{^spec/.+_spec\.rb}) { |m| m[0]['/acceptance/'] ? nil : m[0] }
    watch(%r{^lib/(.+)\.rb})     { |m| "spec/lib/#{m[1]}_spec.rb" }
    watch('spec/spec_helper.rb') { "spec" }

    # Rails example
    watch('spec/spec_helper.rb')                       { "spec" }
    watch('app/controllers/application_controller.rb') { "spec/controllers" }
    watch(%r{^app/(.+)\.rb})                           { |m| "spec/#{m[1]}_spec.rb" }
    watch(%r{^app/views/(.*)$})                        { |m| "spec/views/#{m[1]}_spec.rb" }
    watch(%r{^lib/(.+)\.rb})                           { |m| "spec/lib/#{m[1]}_spec.rb" }
    watch(%r{^app/controllers/(.+)_(controller)\.rb})  { |m| ["spec/#{m[2]}s/#{m[1]}_#{m[2]}_spec.rb", "spec/acceptance/#{m[1]}_spec.rb"] }

group :js do
  spec_location = "spec/javascripts/%s_spec"

  guard 'jasmine-headless-webkit', :all_on_start => false do
    watch(%r{^app/assets/javascripts/(.*)\.(js|coffee)}) { |m| newest_js_file(spec_location % m[1]) }
    watch(%r{^spec/javascripts/(.*)_spec\..*}) { |m| newest_js_file(spec_location % m[1]) }
    watch(%r{^spec/javascripts/.*$}) { "spec/javascripts/**/*_spec.*" }

group :rails do
  guard 'rails', :force_run => true, :server => :thin do
    watch(/^config\/.*\.(rb|yml)$/) { |m| m[0] if !m[0]['/locales/'] }

  guard 'livereload', :grace_period => 1 do
    watch(%r{app/assets/stylesheets/(.*)$}) { 'assets/application.css' }

With the asset pipeline, you no longer need gems like guard-coffeescript or guard-compass, unless you’re doing something really special.

The :test group

This one’s pretty standard: re-run RSpec with every change to the program code. Shouldn’t need much explaining for this one.

The :js group

This one’s a lot like the RSpec setup: re-run Jasmine specs with every file change, configured to look in the most typical place that asset pipeline JavaScript files live in: vendor/assets/javascripts. If you’re also putting stuff into lib/assets/javascripts or vendor/assets/javascripts and want it to be part of the trigger for re-running jasmine-headless-webkit, then change that first line to:

watch(%r{^(app|lib|vendor)/assets/javascripts/(.*)\.(js|coffee)}) { |m| newest_js_file(spec_location % m[2]) }

Note that this change does not add these folders to your Rails Sprockets configuration nor to your jasmine-headless-webkit configuration. It only tells Guard to look in those places for file operations so that it can execute code. app, lib, and vendor are automatically searched for by Rails, and they’re very easy to add to jasmine-headless-webkit, which is what we’ll get to in the next part.

The :rails group

This one has a little more meat to it. First: a few notes about the Rails guard and Rails 3.1:

  • There used to be a definition for lib/.*\.rb, but that was before I learned about require_dependency, which flags “normal” Ruby files to be reloaded in development much like files in app. So if there’s some library file that, say, a model depends on, include it in your model code like this and it gets reloaded along with the parent code:
require_dependency 'super_cool'

class John < ActiveRecord::Base
  include SuperCool

  • Adding new locale files requires a restart of the server. That would be a good type of detection to add to guard-rails. If you want to see it, and I don’t do it fast enough, go ahead and add it. I like pull requests.

Second, LiveReload. It’s not entirely magic, but getting it set up “just right” can be a little tricky. There are three parts to LiveReload:

  • The LiveReload code, which has been moved to nice includable JavaScript in the latest version of LiveReload (before it was a browser extension).
  • The inclusion of the LiveReload code into text/html pages, and any extra code to get a WebSocket connection working.
  • A WebSocket server that accepts connections from browsers that are running the LiveReload code.

With the asset pipeline, we want the following to happen:

  • Reload only the appropriate stylesheet(s) when a Sass file is changed.
  • Reload everything if a Ruby or CoffeeScript file is changed. I’m not a fan of just reloading JavaScript, sorry.

Most apps will only have the one “main” CSS file, application.css. Every other Sass and CSS file gets shoved into that file via the asset pipeline, especially if you’re using Sass includes (which I do since they’re a lot more flexible than Sprockets ones). If you’re using Sprockets includes, enabling debug mode in Sprockets, which you should have on in development anyway, I believe would allow you to reload specific stylesheets, but I’m more of a fan of Sass includes, so there you go.

This Guard LiveReload setup…

guard 'livereload', :grace_period => 1 do
  watch(%r{app/assets/stylesheets/(.*)$}) { 'assets/application.css' }

…ensures that everything except changes to stylesheets reload the entire page. Stylesheet changes only reload the main CSS file. The :grace_period ensures that Sprockets compilation catches up to the file save operations that Guard watches for before actually triggering the reload. It can keep your browser from freaking out and reloading a ton of times on one save operation.

Sprockets, Rails, and jasmine-headless-webkit, sitting in a tree…

Sprockets is pretty cool, and it makes organizing JavaScript a lot easier. I also like super-fast unit testing, with Jasmine being my test framework of choice. There’s three JavaScript unit testing-related problems with the typical Rails setup, though:

  • Any .erb files that get data from your Rails app require you to have your app up and running to pull the data out. That’s integration testing at that point, and I go into more detail about that on the jasmine-headless-webkit site.
  • Your Sprockets config lives in config/application.rb (or even deeper into specific Rails environments).
  • Rails vendored JavaScript gems like jquery-rails let their presence be known with a Railtie.

So jasmine-headless-webkit does the following, in order to make unit testing JavaScript code in a Rails/Sprockets application possible:

  • It ignores .erb files unless your Sprockets requires are incorrect. You’ll know pretty quick if they are.
  • It requires that you add your asset paths to jasmine.yml.
  • All loaded gems are searched for vendor/assets/javascripts and any gems with that directory structure have that specific directory added to the Sprockets asset path.

All of this is covered on the jasmine-headless-webkit site – this guide will get you up and running without a ton of explanation.

Set up Jasmine

You can use jasmine init or rails g jasmine:init, but it’s a lot faster to just make spec/javascripts/support/jasmine.yml and add the following contents:

src_dir: app/assets/javascripts
- lib/assets/javascripts
- vendor/assets/javascripts

- "**/*"

spec_dir: spec/javascripts

- "**/*[Ss]pec.*"

- "helpers/**/*"

This adds app/assets/javascripts, lib/assets/javascripts, vendor/assets/javascripts, and spec/javascripts to the asset path, along with any other available vendored JavaScript directories within gems.

If you added jasmine-spec-extras to your Gemfile, create spec/javascripts/helpers/ with:

#= require jasmine-jquery
#= require sinon

This adds jasmine-jquery and Sinon.js to your project, two must-haves when testing JS- and Ajax-heavy applications.

Including JST templates

Sprockets already comes with a bunch of supported templating engines, which are included just the same as in the Rails app:

#= require backbone
#= require views/my_app/

class window.MyApp extends Backbone.View
  template: JST['views/my_app/template']

jasmine-headless-webkit also watches out for haml-sprockets to be available, and if it is, it gets loaded and .hamljs templates become available:

# Gemfile

gem 'haml-sprockets'
# app/assets/views/
#= require views/my_app/template.jst.hamljs

(want your templating engine added to JHW’s search? Open an issue or fork’n’fix!)

Including Rails data into your JavaScript

Short answer is, “you can’t.” .erb templates are outright ignored by jasmine-headless-webkit, since including that Rails data puts your tests firmly in the integration test arena. If you have data coming in via an .erb file, like constants, you’ll have to stub those in your test files:

# app/assets/

window.Something = <%= %>
# spec/javascripts/helpers/

window.Something =
  stub: "data"

Remember that, in Jasmine’s loading scheme, helpers are always loaded before your specs, but after your code-under-test.

Annoying JavaScript

Unfortunately, out in the world there are still a lot of projects and code snippets that are just annoying to plug into the asset pipeline. Things like WYSIWYG code editors, uploading tools, and lots of other projects that, while they work and can work very well, often do bad things to make themselves work. They may not play well with jasmine-headless-webkit, so I stick these annoying JavaScript projects into a vendor-annoying/assets/javascripts folder and only add that asset path to Rails’s config. Then, if I need to use those JavaScript files, I either reference those files in an .erb file or just flat-out require those files using javascript_include_tag, to get them into the app while not getting them into JHW.


(modern versions of) LiveReload works by loading up a JavaScript file into browsers smart enough to know WebSockets, having the browser connect to a running LiveReload WS server, and waiting for notifications from the WS server instructing the browser to reload certain things, like just the CSS, just the JavaScript, or to reload the whole page.

rack-livereload is the easiest way to plug in LiveReload to the development environment of a running Rails app, and it has the additional advantage of bringing along a copy of web-socket-js, a WebSocket simulator for browsers that support Flash. So you can LiveReload away in non-bleeding edge browsers and on pretty much any mobile device, all at the same time.

With rack-livereload in your Gemfile under :development, add the middleware to config/initializers/development.rb:

config.middleware.insert_before(Rack::Lock, Rack::LiveReload)

Boot up your app, load a page in your favorite browser, and make sure you get the following:

  • The LiveReload script injected into the source code of your page.
  • Notifications in your console of LiveReload trying to connect to a server (or actually connecting if guard-livereload is running).

Now, get guard-livereload running and change a file that it watches for. If everything is connected and working, the act of saving that file should reload any browsers attached to the LiveReload server.

If it doesn’t reload, yet guard-livereload says it’s reloading something, try the following:

  • Force-reload the browser manually to reconnect to the LiveReload server.
  • Make sure the filenames getting passed to guard-livereload make sense. If you’re trying to reload a specific file like a stylesheet, try removing the specific file check and make sure that whole page reloading works first.
  • Restart the whole Guard. The combination of guard-livereload and rack-livereload don’t like it when you just refresh the Guardfile. At least, that’s been my experience.

Production servers don’t need JavaScript runtimes

Back in the Barista/Jammit days, I always precompiled all my JavaScript code, since that was what you did. Also, the servers on which I was running some of my code were too old for building a JavaScript runtime like Node.js or therubyracer. While I’ve moved to Rails 3.1 and away from Barista and Jammit, those servers are still too old for a JS runtime. But I’m actually of the mindset that production servers don’t really need that runtime, since you can precompile everything locally and push it up using Capistrano, or (my favorite) just re-adding all those compiled assets to your Git repository on commit.

There are definitely disadvantages to this approach:

  • If your .erb code requires access to, say, the data on the remote production system, this definitely won’t work. I may ask why your generated JavaScript is tied so tightly to your database, but that’s for another time.
  • It can make Git commits kinda big and noisy, especially if a lot of JavaScript is being changed. Typically I find that it’s just whatever files I’ve changed, along with the final compiled files and their .gz counterparts.
  • Unless you’re using a Git hook to do the compilation, you’re going to forget to do it.

But there’s one really nice advantage:

  • My stupid little continuous deployment setup is super-fast, since all I have to do is the equivalent of bundle exec cap latest deploy on the Git server and away I go. No JS dependencies anywhere but my development machine.

So it’s up to you how you want to do it. I’m just giving you the way that I prefer to put my assets together for production, staging, or continuous deployment.

I use Git hooks like crazy. My penchant project use them to enforce test running before commit, and with that same approach, you can generate your assets destined for whichever environment you choose. penchant runs bundle exec rake and expects an exit code of 0. This means you can stack on some asset compilation code to your Rakefile’s default task, along with your test running (since you’re only running this task on Git commit, and your actual “testing” is done using Guard):

task :default => [ :spec, 'jasmine:headless', :build_and_add_assets ]

task :build_and_add_assets do
  system %{bundle exec RAILS_ENV=production assets:precompile}
  system %{git add public/assets}

When you have the Git hook .git/hooks/pre-commit running bundle exec rake, you’ll always be guaranteed to not only have correct code, but also to have compiled assets.

Annoying JavaScript, part 2

Just because you don’t have a JavaScript runtime on the remote server doesn’t mean you should turn off the asset pipeline on production. You could have more annoying JavaScript that you need to access. What you want to do is be careful not to include any CoffeeScript files (and if it’s an annoying JS project, trust me, they don’t have any). and keep the pipeline on. Oh, and disable the JS compressor. The stuff you care about compressing is already compressed from the operation above.

End of guide.

Now get to coding super-fast using Rails 3.1, asset pipelines, and other fun things!


  • 0.9001: Hi, Scott.
  • 0.9002: Scott uses ADD FEATURE TO jasmine-headless-webkit. It’s super effective!

Migrating mail from an older Citadel server to a new one

I have an old Citadel server that I want to move mail from, the destination being a new Citadel server. The old server is older than the new over-the-wire or XML support, so I’m doing it the hard way and copying messages from one to another over the network. I found which is getting the job done nicely. Everything else will have to come over manually, which will actualy be faster thatn trying to upgrade anything. :/

A few observations:

  • Clean out big mailboxes. My Sent Items folder had a ton of cruft that could be removed, and it made the process go a lot faster (no wai).
  • Turn on IMAP protocol watching, otherwise you won’t know if something’s actually broke or not.